Non-invasive monitoring

Non-invasive monitoring of an endangered or elusive species is monitoring without disturbance to the normal behaviour, ecology or physiology of the animal.  Many commonly-used techniques rely on the fitting of a transmitter to an animal (eg radio-telemetry through a collar, tag, insert) or marking, or capture to take biological samples, or close visual observation.  Whilst it is occasionally essential to use some of these techniques (for example in translocation, or veterinary treatment of injured animals) all have potentially deleterious effects.  In collecting scientific data about animal behaviour, ecology or physiology, we also have to remember that if we alter this in the process of monitoring, the data we collect may be invalidated.